What is Phentermine?
Phentermine is an appetite suppressant of a pharmacological group of amphetamines and phenethylamines. This medication was approved to help reduce weight in obese patients for short-term use and combination with exercise, diet and behavior changes. It is usually prescribed to individuals who have health risks due to their weight. This active ingredient phentermine (or fentermina in spanish, phenterminum in latin name) is manufactured and distributed in various countries under different trade brand and generic names, for example: Adipex-P (Teva), Ionamin (Celltech), Acxion (Investigacion Farmaceutica), Fastin (GlaxoSmithKline), Duromine (iNova, Douglas Pharmaceuticals), Panbesy (Eurodrug Laboratories), Phentermine (KVK-TECH), Phentermine (Eon Labs), etc. In several countries (such as the USA, Canada, Australia) this drug is a controlled substance because it can cause addiction.
Phentermine acts on the brain neurotransmitters. This medication is a central stimulant and an isomer of methamphetamine. It stimulates neurons to release a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines among which are dopamine, epinephrine (also called adrenaline) and norepinephrine. The appetite suppression activity of these compounds is due to its action on the central nervous system. This mechanism of action is similar to other stimulant appetite suppressants such as diethylpropion and phendimetrazine. The neurotransmitters signal the alert response which also stops the hunger.
Why is Adipex Retard prescribed?
This medication is used to reduce body weight in obese or overweight patients. Often it is prescribed in a regimen of weight reduction based on exercise, behavioral modification, and caloric restriction in the management of exogenous obesity for obese or overweight patients with the presence of other risk factors (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia). Phentermine works by directly affecting the area of the brain that controls your appetite making you feel less hungry.
Dosage and administration
It is recommended to use phentermine only in the short term (usually about 12 weeks) and then other non-pharmacological strategies for weight loss and healthy dieting and exercise. However, recommendations limiting its use for short-term treatment are controversial. One reason for the restriction to 12 weeks is drug tolerance, as Phentermine loses its appetite-suppressing effects after the body adjusts. On the contrary, it has been shown that this drug did not lose its effect in a trial of 36 weeks. Due to the risk of insomnia, it is recommended taking phentermine before breakfast or 1-2 hours later.
Adipex Retard side effects
Generally, phentermine is relatively well tolerated but can cause some side effects because it releases catecholamines. Among the most common effects include: tachycardia (increased heart rate), elevated blood pressure, palpitations, nervousness, irritability and insomnia. Additionally, if this drug is taken for long term, it may develop euphoria and addiction. Other less common side effects include blurred vision, changes in sex drive, clumsiness, confusion, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, headache, irregular heartbeat, nausea or vomiting, psychosis, skin rash or itching, stomach pain, fatigue and bad taste.
The following people should not use phentermine:
- Allergy to any ingredient of Phentermine containing pharmaceutical form (usually capsules or tablets) or other sympathomimetic (eg, pseudoephedrine).
- Taking dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, furazolidone, guanadrel, guanethidine, or have taken of mono-amine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg., phenelzine) in the last 14 days.
- With high blood pressure or moderate hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, heart or circulatory disease, or severe narrowing of blood vessels.
- Who are in a state of agitation or have a history of alcohol or drug abuse.
Adipex Retard using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
There is no data whether Phentermine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. That's why rgis drugs should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of this medication in pediatric patients have not been established.
Your healthcare professional (doctor or pharmacist) should be informed of the following conditions:
- If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant or if you are breastfeeding (lactation).
- If you are taking prescription or nonprescription medications, herbal preparations or dietary supplements.
- If you have allergies to medicines, foods or other substances.
- If you have a brain disorder or spinal cord, narrowing of the arteries, high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes or high cholesterol or lipids.
Phentermine drug interactions
The following drugs can interact with phentermine:
- Dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, furazolidone, or inhibitors of MAO (eg., phenelzine) because the risk of serious side effects such as headaches, high blood pressure, low pulse, elevated temperature or fatal lung problems.
- Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake (such as fluoxetine).
- Guanadrel or guanethidine because their effectiveness may be decreased by phentermine.
Adipex Retard in case of emergency / overdose
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center or local emergency services.
Manifestations of acute overdosage with phentermine include restlessness, hyperreflexia, tremor, confusion, assaultiveness, rapid respiration, hallucinations, panic states. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include hypertension or hypotension, arrhythmia, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning usually terminates in convulsions and coma.
Management of acute phentermine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes lavage and sedation with a barbiturate. Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is ineffective and not recommended in this regard.